経済史・経営史

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経済史一般

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1

Horne, Tom, A Viking Market Kingdom in Ireland and Britain: Trade Networks and the Importation of a Southern Scandinavian Silver Bullion Economy. (Routledge Archaeologies of the Viking World) 274 pp. 2021:12 (Routledge, UK) <667-575>
ISBN 978-0-367-35784-9 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00

Viking-Age trade, network theory, silver economies, kingdom formation, and the Scandinavian raiding and settlement of Ireland and Britain are all popular subjects. However, few have looked for possible connections between these phenomena, something this book suggests were closely related. By allying Blomkvist's network-kingdoms with Sindbaek's nodal market-networks, it is argued that the political and economic character of Viking-Age Britain and Ireland - my 'Insular Scandinavia' - is best understood if Dublin and Jorvik are seen as being established as nodes of a market-based network kingdom. Based on a dataset relating to the then developing bullion economies of the central and eastern Scandinavian worlds and southern Scandinavia in particular, it is argued that war-band leaders from, or familiar with, 'Danish' markets like Hedeby and Kaupang transposed to Insular Scandinavia the concept of polities based on establishment of markets and the protection of routeways between them. Using this book, readers can think of interlinked Dublin and Great Army elites creating an Insular version of a Danish-style nodal market kingdom based on commerce and silver currencies. A Viking Market Kingdom in Ireland and Britain will help specialist researchers and students of Viking archaeology make connections between southern Scandinavia and the market economy of the Ui Imair ('descendants of Ivarr') operating out of the twin nodes of Dublin and Jorvik via the initial establishment of Hiberno-Scandinavian longphuirt and the related winter-camps of the Viking Great Army.

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2

茶の歴史
Krieger, Martin / Krieger, Martin, Geschichte des Tees: Anbau, Handel und globale Genusskulturen. 336 S. 2021:10 (Boehlau, GW) <667-576>
ISBN 978-3-412-52204-9 hard ¥6,660.- (税込) EUR 35.00 *

In der Teetasse spiegeln sich zwei Jahrtausende Weltgeschichte wider. Schon frueh ein Getraenk am chinesischen Kaiserhof und in buddhistischen Kloestern, eroberte der Tee seit dem 17. Jahrhundert Europa. Die Mediziner versprachen sich von ihm Gesundheit und ein langes Leben, am gepflegten Teetisch wurde er wiederum zum Inbegriff hoechster Genussfreude. Auch die Deutschen lernten ihn kennen und schaetzen. Nicht nur in Ostfriesland, sondern ebenso in Hamburg, Berlin, Weimar und Baden Baden verspricht der Tee bis heute Genuss und Lebensfreude. Das Buch schildert in lebendiger Sprache Anbau, Handel und Konsum eines einzigartigen Getraenks. Ebenso hinterfragt es die sich immer noch um den Tee rankenden Legenden. Es liefert einen umfassenden Ueberblick von den fruehesten Anfaengen in Asien bis in die Gegenwart und beleuchtet ausfuehrlich die Entwicklung des Teegenusses in Deutschland.

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Lee, Robert / McNamara, Paul (eds.), Port-Cities and their Hinterlands: Migration, Trade and Cultural Exchange from the Early Seventeenth Century to 1939. (Routledge Explorations in Economic History) 360 pp. 2022:3 (Routledge, UK) <667-577>
ISBN 978-1-03-213978-4 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00

This interdisciplinary book brings together eleven original contributions by scholars in the United Kingdom, continental Europe, America and Japan which represent innovative and important research on the relationship between cities and their hinterlands. They discuss the factors which determined the changing nature of port-hinterland relations in particular, and highlight the ways in which port-cities have interacted and intersected with their different hinterlands as a result of both in- and out-migration, cultural exchange and the wider flow of goods, services and information. Historically, maritime commerce was a powerful driving force behind urbanisation and by 1850 seaports accounted for a significant proportion of the world's great cities. Ports acted as nodal points for the flow of population and the dissemination of goods and services, but their role as growth poles also affected the economic transformation of both their hinterlands and forelands. In fact, most ports, irrespective of their size, had a series of overlapping hinterlands whose shifting importance reflected changes in trading relations (political frameworks), migration patterns, family networks, and cultural exchange. Urban historians have been criticised for being concerned primarily with self-contained processes which operate within the boundaries of individual towns and cities and as a result, the key relationships between cities and their hinterlands have often been neglected. The chapters in this work focus primarily on the determinants of port-hinterland linkages and analyse these as distinct, but interrelated, fields of interaction. Marking a significant contribution to the literature in this field, Port-Cities and their Hinterlands provides essential reading for students and scholars of the history of economics.

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Lucas, Isabelle, Un imperialisme electrique: un siecle de relations economiques helvetico-argentines (1890-1979). (Histoire et societes contemporaines) 490 p. 2021:10 (Antipodes, SZ) <667-578>
ISBN 978-2-88901-186-5 paper ¥6,470.- (税込) EUR 34.00

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McCarthy, Pat, A History of the Irish Pharmaceutical Industry: Making Medicines for the World. 256 pp. 2021:5 (Four Courts Pr., IE) <667-579>
ISBN 978-1-84682-979-6 hard ¥6,798.- (税込) GB£ 30.00

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国連SDGs以前の歴史
Gutmann, Martin / Gorman, Daniel (eds.), Before the UN Sustainable Development Goals: A Historical Companion. 560 pp. 2022:2 (Oxford U. Pr., UK) <667-390>
ISBN 978-0-19-284875-8 hard ¥21,175.- (税込) GB£ 110.00

Before the UN Sustainable Development Goals enables professionals, scholars, and students engaged with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to develop a richer understanding of the legacies and historical complexities of the policy fields behind each goal. Each of the seventeen chapters tells the decades- or centuries-old backstory of one SDG and reveals the global human connections, governance tools and frameworks, and the actors involved in past efforts to address sustainable development challenges. Collectively, the seventeen chapters build a historical latticework that reveals the multiple and often interwoven sources that have shaped the challenges later encompassed in the SDGs. Engaging and insightfully written, the book's chapters are authored by international experts from multiple disciplines. The book is an indispensable resource and a vital foundation for understanding the past's indelible footprint on our contemporary sustainable development challenges.

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Denzel, Markus A. / Bonoldi, Andrea et al. (eds.), Oeconomia Alpium II: Economic History of the Alps in Preindustrial Times: Methods and Perspectives of Research. 300 S. 2021:12 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-788>
ISBN 978-3-11-051923-5 hard ¥18,839.- (税込) EUR 99.95

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Farrenkopf, Michael / Siemer, Stefan (Hrsg.), Materielle Kulturen des Bergbaus / Material Cultures of Mining: Zugaenge, Aspekte und Beispiele / Approaches, Aspects and Examples. (Veroeffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Bergbau-Museum Bochum 243) VIII, 651 S. 2021:11 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-789>
ISBN 978-3-11-073475-1 hard ¥16,936.- (税込) EUR 89.95

Die neuere Montangeschichte beschaeftigt sich nach wie vor ueberwiegend mit archivalischen und schriftlich basierten Quellen. Das Potential der in musealen Sammlungen verfuegbaren Objekte fuer die historische Forschung ist dennoch bislang kaum ausgelotet. Die Beitraege des vorliegenden Bandes stellen einzelne Objekte oder Objektgruppen in den Mittelpunkt der Diskussion. Dabei geht es um technische Modelle als Wissensobjekte ebenso wie um Bergbaukleidung als Alltagsobjekt oder Fahnen als Gedaechtnisobjekte. Hinzu kommt die Reflexion ueber archaeologische Funde und ihre Relevanz fuer eine Kontextualisierung von Bergbauobjekten jenseits ueberlieferter Schriftquellen. Das Buch richtet sich im engeren Sinne an Forschende auf dem Gebiet der Montan- und Technikgeschichte sowie allgemein an diejenigen, die sich mit einer materiell basierten Erinnerungskultur beschaeftigen.

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Felten, Sebastian, Money in the Dutch Republic: Everyday Practice and Circuits of Exchange. 290 pp. 2022:4 (Cambridge U. Pr., UK) <666-790>
ISBN 978-1-00-909884-7 hard ¥14,437.- (税込) GB£ 75.00

The Dutch Republic was an important hub in the early modern world-economy, a place where hundreds of monies were used alongside each other. Sebastian Felten explores regional, European and global circuits of exchange by analysing everyday practices in Dutch cities and villages in the period 1600-1850. He reveals how for peasants and craftsmen, stewards and churchmen, merchants and metallurgists, money was an everyday social technology that helped them to carve out a livelihood. With vivid examples of accounting and assaying practices, Felten offers a key to understanding the internal logic of early modern money. This book uses new archival evidence and an approach informed by the history of technology to show how plural currencies gave early modern users considerable agency. It explores how the move to uniform national currency limited this agency in the nineteenth century and thus helps us make sense of the new plurality of payments systems today.

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Huttenlocher, Kristina, Menschen in der Fabrik: Industriefotografie in Konsumgueterfirmen 1895-1970. 184 S. 2021:11 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-794>
ISBN 978-3-11-075823-8 hard ¥5,518.- (税込) EUR 29.95

Die Industriefotografie, wie man sie kennt, praesentiert Maschinen und gewaltige Anlagen der Grossindustrie, den arbeitenden Menschen aber meist nur in Gruppen oder fuer einen Groessenvergleich der beeindruckenden Produktionsmaschinerie. Der Alltag industrieller Auftragsfotografie in mittelstaendischen produzierenden Unternehmen sah anders aus. Am Beispiel hannoverscher Konsumgueterfirmen zeigt die Autorin, welche Bedeutung die Fotos der Beschaeftigten - ungelernte Arbeiterinnen und selbstbewusste Fachkraefte - fuer das Selbstverstaendnis der Unternehmen und fuer ihre Aussendarstellung hatte. Sie stellt die Fotografien aus sieben Jahrzehnten in den jeweiligen historischen Kontext. Diese folgten den Moden und den wirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen ihrer Zeit und unterschieden sich untereinander je nach Fuehrungsstil, Unternehmenskultur und der Rolle, die Industriefotografie in der Kommunikationsstrategie des Unternehmens jeweils spielte. Die Mitarbeiter waren dabei keine Randfiguren. Die Arbeit fuellt mit dem Blick auf die Auftragsfotografie mittelstaendischer Konsumgueterfabrikanten eine Leerstelle in der Literatur zur Industriefotografie.

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Jimenez-Montes, German, A Dissimulated Trade: Northern European Timber Merchants in Seville (1574-1598). (The Atlantic World 40) 260 pp. 2022:3 (Brill, NE) <666-795>
ISBN 978-90-04-46018-8 hard ¥20,552.- (税込) EUR 108.00

In A Dissimulated Trade, German Jimenez-Montes sheds light on the role of foreigners in the Spanish empire. Making use of the rich collection of notarial deeds available at the Archivo Historico Provincial de Sevilla, this book examines how a group of Dutch, Flemish and German merchants came to dominate the supply of timber in Seville. With this microhistory, German Jimenez-Montes offers a new account on the trade between Andalusia and northern Europe at the end of the sixteenth century, focusing on a resource that was essential for Seville's economy and Spain's imperial aspirations.

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Kleber, Kristin (ed.), Taxation in the Achaemenid Empire. (Classica et Orientalia 26) 430 S. 2021:6 (O. Harrassowitz, GW) <666-796>
ISBN 978-3-447-11597-1 hard ¥18,649.- (税込) EUR 98.00

Achaemenid Studies fall between the academic divisions of Ancient Near Eastern Studies and Archeology, Ancient History, Classical Philology, Egyptology and Semitic Languages. No single scholar can cover the many cultures that were united under the umbrella of this huge empire alone and in-depth. Interdisciplinary approaches are a necessity in order to tackle the challenges that the diverse textual records in Akkadian, Demotic Egyptian, Elamite, Aramaic and Greek present us with. This volume, the proceedings of a conference on taxation and fiscal administration in the Achaemenid Empire held in Amsterdam in 2018, contains contributions on Babylonia, Egypt, the Levant, Asia Minor and Arachosia, written by specialists in the respective languages and cultures. The question that lies at the basis of this volume is how the empire collected revenue from the satrapies, whether and how local institutions were harnessed to make imperial rule successful. The contributions investigate what kind of taxes were imposed in what area and how tax collection was organized and administered. Since we lack imperial state archives, local records are the more important, as they are our only reliable source that allows us to move beyond the famous but unverifiable statement on Achaemenid state finances in Herodotus, Histories 3, 89?97.

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Krauss, Clemens, Geldpolitik im Umbruch: Die Zentralbanken Frankreichs und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in den 1970er Jahren. (Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte 128) 392 S. 2021:10 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-797>
ISBN 978-3-11-072810-1 hard ¥11,227.- (税込) EUR 59.95 *

In den 1970er Jahren waren Zentralbanken weltweit mit neuen und fundamentalen Herausforderungen konfrontiert. Das Bretton Woods-System brach zusammen, der Dollar verlor seine Ankerfunktion und die festen Wechselkurse buessten ihre Legitimitaet ein. Die Oelpreiskrise heizte die Inflation an und vervielfachte globale Kapitalstroeme. Zugleich errichteten in Europa die Mitgliedsstaaten der EWG die Grundlagen einer gemeinsamen Waehrungsunion. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Reaktionen der Deutschen Bundesbank und der Banque de France auf diese Entwicklungen. Dabei wird besonders deutlich, wie die beiden Zentralbanken einerseits die Grundlagen ihrer bisherigen Geldpolitik auf den Pruefstand stellten und neue Handlungsstrategien entwickelten, sowie andererseits eigenstaendige Wirkkraft entfalteten, durch die sie den Wandel der internationalen Waehrungs- und Wirtschaftsbeziehungen nachhaltig praegten.

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Kuehschelm, Oliver, Einkaufen als nationale Verpflichtung: Zur Genealogie nationaler Oekonomien in Oesterreich und der Schweiz, 1920-1980. (Werbung - Konsum - Geschichte) 640 S. 2021:4 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-798>
ISBN 978-3-11-070103-6 hard ¥22,645.- (税込) EUR 119.95

Buy-National-Kampagnen in Oesterreich seit den 1920er Jahren und der Schweiz seit den 1910er Jahren bis ca. 1980 werden vorgestellt und analysiert. Dabei wird die national formatierte und patriotisch aufgeladene Wahrnehmung von Massenkonsumguetern nicht einfach auf eine oekonomische Absatzstrategie verkuerzt, sondern als Versuch, das Soziale im 20. Jahrhundert zur Gesellschaft des Nationalstaats zusammenzufuegen verstanden.

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Larsson, Mats / Lilja, Kristina / Petersson, Tom, Risk Management in Early Banking: An International Perspective of Swedish Savings Banks, 1820-1910. (Palgrave Studies in the History of Finance) 120 pp. 2021:8 (Palgrave Macmillan, UK) <666-799>
ISBN 978-3-030-80774-0 hard ¥10,276.- (税込) EUR 54.99

This book deals with risk management and the organisation of banking in Swedish savings banks alongside the development in other European countries. The period of analysis begins with the establishment of the first savings banks in 1820 and ends in 1910. During this period, banking developed as a well-functioning system for deposits and credits. The book focuses on this development from a theoretical perspective connected to risk management and the role of trust and legitimacy in credits and savings. The analysis deals with the overall development of the Swedish banking system and the role of savings banks as well as bank connections with different groups of customers. Of interest to financial historians, academics, and researchers, it also analyses the role of insider lending and the practical aspects of granting credits, such as the use of collaterals and the level of interest rates to compensate higher risks.

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労働と失業 1834~1911年 全4巻
Levine-Clark, Marjorie (ed.), Work and Unemployment, 1834-1911. 4 vols. 1741 pp. 2022:6 (Routledge, UK) <666-801>
ISBN 978-0-367-33510-6 hard ¥89,507.- (税込) GB£ 395.00

This collection focuses on work and unemployment in the lives of working-class Britons from 1824 (the Vagrancy Act) to 1911 (the National Insurance Act). The collection is framed around what "the work imperative" - the expectation that able-bodied men, to fit into the dominant construction of masculinity and demonstrate their worthiness, had an obligation to work for pay. This gendered conception of work had significant implications for understandings and experiences of unemployment. Throughout the period these volumes address that being out of work was seen as a problem almost exclusively for men (even if women were mentioned in legislation or policies) because of their assumed primary roles as breadwinners and providers. The collection explores power relations between unemployed people and those with the ability to provide assistance to them, and the continuing struggles over the meanings of work and unemployment.

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O'Brien, Patrick Karl (ed.), The Crucible of Revolutionary and Napoleonic Warfare and European Transitions to Modern Economic Growth. (Library of Economic History 15) 2021:11 (Brill, NE) <666-802>
ISBN 978-90-04-47273-0 hard ¥23,406.- (税込) EUR 123.00

Historiographically this book rests on the fact that European transitions to modern economic growth were obstructed and promoted by the Revolution in France and 15 years of geopolitical conflict sustained by Napoleon in order to establish French Hegemony over the states and economies of Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Portugal and overseas commerce. The chapters reveal that their authors concerns to analyse both the nature and significance of connections between geopolitical and economic forces lend coherence to a collaborative endeavour utilising comparative methods to address a mega question. What might be plausibly concluded about the economic costs and the benefits of this protracted conjuncture of Revolutionary and Napoleonic Warfare? Contributors are: Patrick Karl O'Brien, Loic Charles, Guillaume Daudin, Silvia Marzagalli, Marjolein 't Hart, Johan Joor, Mark Dincecco, Giovanni Federico, Leandro Prados de la Escosura, Carlos Santiago-Caballero, Cristina Moreira, Jaime Reis, Rita Martins de Sousa, and Peter M.Solar.

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Pallaver, Karin (ed.), Monetary Transitions: Colonialism, Currencies and African Societies. (Palgrave Studies in Economic History) 276 pp. 2022:1 (Palgrave Macmillan, UK) <666-803>
ISBN 978-3-030-83460-9 hard ¥26,451.- (税込) EUR 139.99

This book uses money as a lens through which to analyze the social and economic impact of colonialism on African societies and institutions. It is the first book to address the monetary history of the entire colonial period in a comprehensive way, covering different areas of the continent, with the ultimate aim of understanding the long-term impact of colonial monetary policies on African societies. While grounding an understanding of money in terms of its circulation, acceptance and impact, this book shows first and foremost how the monetary systems that resulted from the imposition of colonial rule on African societies were not a replacement of the old currency systems with entirely new ones, but were rather the result of the convergence of different systems of value and monetary practices. By putting histories of people using money at the heart of the story, and connecting them to larger imperial policies, it provides a new and fresh perspective on the history of the establishment of colonial rule in Africa. This book is the result of a collaborative and interdisciplinary research project that has received funding by the Gerda Henkel Foundation. The contributors are both junior and senior scholars, based at universities in Europe, Africa, Asia and the US, who are all specialists on the history of money in Africa. It will appeal to an international audience of scholars and educators interested in African Studies and History, Economic History, Imperial and Colonial History, Development Studies, Monetary Studies.

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Reden, Sitta / Ruffing, Kai (Hrsg.), Handbuch Antike Wirtschaft. (Handbuecher zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte) 600 S. 2022:5 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-804>
ISBN 978-3-11-056757-1 hard ¥34,063.- (税込) EUR 179.95

Der Band bildet die Forschungsgeschichte, Quellen und theoretische Forschungsansaetze sowie die Bandbreite der wirtschaftshistorischen Sachgebiete der Alten Geschichte ab. Der Rahmen reicht dabei von ca. 1000 v. Chr. bis ca. 400 n. Chr., den Mittelpunkt bildet die ?Kernzeit" der griechisch-roemischen Antike von 700 v. Chr. bis 300 n. Chr. Dabei stehen althistorisch-kulturwissenschaftliche Analyse- und Darstellungsmethoden im Vordergrund.

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Roy, Tirthankar / Swamy, Anand V., Law and the Economy in a Young Democracy: India 1947 and Beyond. (Markets and Governments in Economic History) 272 pp. 2021:12 (U. Chicago Pr., US) <666-805>
ISBN 978-0-226-79900-1 hard ¥6,237.- (税込) US$ 45.00

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Roessner, Philipp R., Einfuehrung in die Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Band 4: Fruehe Neuzeit. 250 S. 2021:9 (Kohlhammer, GW) <666-806>
ISBN 978-3-17-036720-3 paper ¥4,757.- (税込) EUR 25.00

Viele entscheidende Weichenstellungen fuer die weitere oekonomische Entwicklung Europas und der Welt erfolgten in der Fruehen Neuzeit. Hier liegen die Wurzeln des Kapitalismus und des modernen Wirtschaftswachstums, aber auch die Gruende, warum einige Laender arm blieben. Wie hat man in der Fruehen Neuzeit gearbeitet und gewirtschaftet? Welche Unterschiede gab es dabei zwischen sozialen Schichten und Geschlechtern? Was verstand man ueberhaupt unter "Wirtschaft", und wie hat sich das Denken ueber Maerkte und Wirtschaft, Freiheit und Kapitalismus, Unternehmergeist und Staat im Laufe der Zeit veraendert und entwickelt? Praegnant und informativ fuehrt Philipp Roessner in die Wirtschaftsgeschichte der europaeischen Fruehen Neuzeit ein und gibt eine grundlegende Uebersicht ueber die wichtigsten Debatten und Tendenzen der modernen Forschung.

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鎮目雅人著 大恐慌期の日本経済
Shizume, Masato, The Japanese Economy During the Great Depression: The Emergence of Macroeconomic Policy in A Small and Open Economy, 1931-1936. (Studies in Economic History) 111 pp. 2021:9 (Springer, GW) <666-808>
ISBN 978-981-13-7356-5 hard ¥20,742.- (税込) EUR 109.99 *

This book provides a systematic explanation of a remarkable policy innovation in an emerging economy in the modern world. In doing so, it highlights the nature of the Japanese economy during the interwar period. It offers a canonical case study for international macroeconomic policy of a small and open economy. Readers can draw lessons from the Japanese experience in the 1930s, recalling what kinds of challenges policymakers faced in a crisis situation, what they can do, and what they should not do. As a whole, it is a novel reference both for scholars in economic history and international economics, and for policymakers all over the world. A comprehensive and clear-cut picture of the Japanese economy during the Great Depression in the 1930s is presented, including the policy innovations brought about by an iconoclastic finance minister, Korekiyo Takahashi, at that time. To this end, the book integrates the narrative analysis based on newly available archival documents and the quantitative analysis based on newly constructed macroeconomic data and contemporary econometric methodologies. This work shows how Japan escaped from the depression in its early stage. It illustrates a transmission mechanism of the macroeconomic stimulus package of currency depreciation, easy money, and fiscal expansion. As well, it argues that the key for economic recovery was currency depreciation, and that expectations played a pivotal role in ending deflation and kick-starting economic recovery. Also contained here is an exploration of politico-economic interaction in the shaping of economic policy and the long-term consequences of policy actions such as departure from the gold standard and initiation of the government debt finance by the central bank. It is shown that the collapse of the international gold standard and debt finance by the central bank resulted in a loss of fiscal discipline in the long run.

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von Brescius, Meike, Private Enterprise and the China Trade: Merchants and Markets in Europe, 1700-1750. (Library of Economic History 16) 280 pp. 2022:1 (Brill, NE) <666-809>
ISBN 978-90-04-36914-6 hard ¥20,933.- (税込) EUR 110.00

This book examines the European commercial landscape of the early China trade c.1700-1750. It studies the making of expanding markets for Chinese consumer goods in Europe by exploring the private networks and interloping activities of British-born East India Company traders.

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Wegenschimmel, Peter, Zombiewerften oder Hungerkuenstler?: Staatlicher Schiffbau in Ostmitteleuropa nach 1970. (Schriftenreihe zur Zeitschrift fuer Unternehmensgeschichte 33) 280 S. 2021:6 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-810>
ISBN 978-3-11-073937-4 paper ¥11,227.- (税込) EUR 59.95 *

Die Werften Gdynia (Polen) und Uljanik (Kroatien), einst Flaggschiffprojekte des Rats fuer Gegenseitige Wirtschaftshilfe, haben den Beitritt zur EU nicht ueberlebt. Diese seit den 1970er Jahren unrentablen Unternehmen haben unpraetentioese staatliche Eigentuemer, vielschichtige Legitimationsstrategien sowie Verflechtungen auf kommunaler und nationaler Ebene trotz institutioneller Umbrueche und neoliberaler Reformen nach 1989 ueber Wasser gehalten.

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Alimento, Antonella / Della Fontana, Aris (eds.), Histories of Trade as Histories of Civilisation. 359 pp. 2021:11 (Palgrave Macmillan, UK) <666-783>
ISBN 978-3-030-80086-4 hard ¥24,548.- (税込) EUR 129.99

This edited collection explores the histories of trade, a peculiar literary genre that emerged in the context of the historiographical and cultural changes promoted by the histoire philosophique movement. It marked a discontinuity with erudition and antiquarianism, and interacted critically with universal history. By comparing and linking the histories of individual peoples within a common historical process, this genre enriched the reflection on civilisation that emerged during the long eighteenth century. Those who looked to the past wanted to understand the political constitutions and manners most appropriate to commerce, and grasp the recurring mechanisms underlying economic development. In this sense, histories of trade constituted a declination of eighteenth-century political economy, and thus became an invaluable analytical and practical tool for a galaxy of academic scholars, journalists, lawyers, administrators, diplomats and government ministers whose ambition was to reform the political, social and economic structure of their nations. Moreover, thanks to these investigations, a lucid awareness of historical temporality and, more particularly, the irrepressible precariousness of economic hegemonies, developed. However, as a field of tension in which multiple and even divergent intellectual sensibilities met, this literary genre also found space for critical assessments that focused on the ambivalence and dangers of commercial civilisation. Examining the complex relationship between the production of wealth and civilisation, this book provides unique insights for scholars of political economy, intellectual history and economic history.

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Antunes, Catia A. P. / Bethencourt, Francisco (eds.), Merchant Cultures: A Global Approach to Spaces, Representations and Worlds of Trade, 1500-1800. (European Expansion and Indigenous Response 37) 360 pp. 2022:2 (Brill, NE) <666-784>
ISBN 978-90-04-50655-8 hard ¥22,455.- (税込) EUR 118.00

The way merchants trade, think about business and represent commerce in art forms define merchant culture. The world between 1500 and 1800 encompassed different merchant cultures that stood alone and in contact with others. Culture, power relations and institutions framed similarities and differences and outlined the global outcome of these exchanges.

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Bluma, Lars / Farrenkopf, Michael / Meyer, Torsten (eds.), Boom - Crisis - Heritage: King Coal and the Energy Revolutions after 1945. (Veroeffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Bergbau-Museum Bochum 242) 305 S. 2021:10 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-785>
ISBN 978-3-11-073476-8 hard ¥13,130.- (税込) EUR 69.95 *

Boom ? Crisis ? Heritage, these terms aptly outline the history of global coal mining after 1945. The essays collected in this volume explore this history with different emphases and questions. The range of topics also reflects this broad approach. The first section contains contributions on political, social and economic history. They address the European energy system in the globalised world of the 20th and 21st centuries as well as specific social policies in mining regions. The second section then focuses on the medialisation of mining and its legacies, also paying attention to the environmental history of mining. The anthology, which goes back to a conference of the same name at the Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, thus offers a multi-faceted insight into the research field of modern mining history.

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台湾における発展の世紀
Chow, Peter C. Y. (ed.), A Century of Development in Taiwan: From Colony to Modern State. 400 pp. 2022:1 (E. Elgar, UK) <666-787>
ISBN 978-1-80088-015-3 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00

Most colonies became independent countries after the end of World War II, while few of them became modernized even after decades of their independence. Taiwan is one of the few to become a modern state with remarkable achievements in its economic, socio-cultural, and political development.In 1921, Taiwanese intellectuals initiated a Petition Movement for the Establishment of a Taiwanese Parliament under the colonial government. Leaders of the enlightenment also established the Taiwan Cultural Association (TCA) on October 17, 1921. These two movements led to a series of socio-cultural, political, and economic developments during the past century. This book addresses the path and trajectory of the emergence of Taiwan from a colony to a modern state in the past century. It contains four major sections on identity and political developments and explores international relations, economic development. educational and societal development, and culture and literature development.This thorough exploration will prove invaluable to graduate and undergraduate students in Taiwan history, literature, and the cultural and political economy of development as well as students studying East Asia. It offers the same wealth of information to researchers and practitioners in Taiwan-China-US trilateral relations and in cultural anthropology and practices in East Asia politics and business.

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Grift, Liesbeth van de / Mueller, Dietmar et al. (eds.), Managing the Land: Rural and Agricultural Actors in Twentieth-Century Europe - A Handbook. (Contemporary European History 3) 450 S. 2022:7 (de Gruyter Oldenbourg, GW) <666-620>
ISBN 978-3-11-067856-7 hard ¥24,548.- (税込) EUR 129.95

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Henderson, Rena R., Sustainable Family Farming and Yeoman Ideals: 1860 to 2000 in North-West Tasmania. 328 pp. 2021:12 (Routledge, UK) <666-621>
ISBN 978-1-03-213558-8 hard ¥31,724.- (税込) GB£ 140.00

Within the frame of family farming, this book offers a longitudinal study of the Castra district in North-West Tasmania from first European settlement to the end of the twentieth century. It draws upon historical sources for yeomanry characteristics from Britain, Canada, the USA, New Zealand and Australian mainland colonies to show how these characteristics were persistently supportive of family farming. Surveying farming communities over several generations, this book explores a range of topics including colonial surveying practices, settler families' motivation, attributes and demographics, the role of Methodism, the ways children were inculcated into yeoman farming enterprises, the role of women as companionate wives, and the political participation of farmers in the public sphere. The book also offers a new perspective of three commonly-held myths of settlement failure: the settlement of retired Anglo-Indian military and civil officers in the 1870s, the settlement of soldiers on small farms after the Great War, and the claims that the ideal of yeoman family farming was anachronistic to capitalist commodity production. The book draws from a wide selection of previously underused primary source materials, including oral histories from current and past residents, to provide a comprehensive overview of an important aspect of rural Australian history.The book is a valuable contribution to Australian historiography, and will be a useful resource for students and scholars of rural history, social history, environmental history, colonialism and sustainable agriculture.

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A.J.H.レイサム著 アジアにおける米と工業化
Latham, A. J. H., Rice and Industrialisation in Asia. (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia) 200 pp. 2021:12 (Routledge, UK) <666-626>
ISBN 978-1-03-212462-9 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00

This book is about the introduction of modern power-driven rice milling to the main rice exporting countries of Burma (Myanmar), Siam (Thailand) and French Indo-China (Vietnam) from 1869. Rich in historical and empirical sources, the book draws extensively from the London Rice Brokers' Association Circular archives, published monthly from 1869 to 2014, as well as numerical data gathered from historic trade and custom reports. It outlines how rice had been exported in the husk to be milled in Britain prior to 1869, after which mills were transferred to Asia and the rice shipped back having been milled. Rice processed in Asia is explained not only as a major saving in transport costs, but the marker of a crucial step in the industrialisation of Asia - namely through the introduction of modern mechanised value adding rice mills powered by steam engines. This is a reversal of the concept that the development of modern technology de-industrialised Asia, turning it into a supplier of raw materials. Later chapters address the inter-war years, when Chinese companies in particular took over the operation of mills and developed an Asia-wide market for rice milled in the great milling centers of Rangoon (Yangon), Bangkok and Saigon (Ho Chi Minh). Rice and Industrialisation in Asia will prove a valuable resource to students and scholars of economic history, postcolonial studies, and Asian studies more broadly.

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Flores Zendejas, Juan / Gaillard, Norbert et al. (eds.), Moral Hazard: A Financial, Legal, and Economic Perspective. (Routledge International Studies in Money and Banking) 240 pp. 2021:12 (Routledge, UK) <666-555>
ISBN 978-0-367-68833-2 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00

Moral Hazard is a core concept in economics. In a nutshell, moral hazard reflects the reduced incentive to protect against risk where an entity is (or believes it will be) protected from its consequences, whether through an insurance arrangement or an implicit or explicit guarantee system. It is fundamentally driven by information asymmetry, arises in all sectors of the economy, including banking, medical insurance, financial insurance, and governmental support, undermines the stability of our economic systems and has burdened taxpayers in all developed countries, resulting in significant costs to the community. Despite the seriousness and pervasiveness of moral hazard, policymakers and scholars have failed to address this issue. This book fills this gap. It covers 200 years of moral hazard: from its origins in the 19th century to the bailouts announced in the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak. The book is divided into three parts. Part I deals with the ethics and other fundamental issues connected to moral hazard. Part II provides historical and empirical evidence on moral hazard in international finance. It examines in turn the role of the export credit industry, the international lender of last resort, and the IMF. Finally, Part III examines specific sectors such as automobile, banking, and the US industry at large. This is the first book to provide an interdisciplinary analysis of moral hazard and explain why addressing this issue has become crucial today. As such, it will attract interest from scholars across different fields, including economists, political scientists and lawyers.

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33

Seow, Victor, Carbon Technocracy: Energy Regimes in Modern East Asia. (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University) 384 pp. 2022:2 (U. Chicago Pr., US) <666-609>
ISBN 978-0-226-72199-6 hard ¥5,544.- (税込) US$ 40.00

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34

Borowy, Iris / Unger, Corinna (eds.), Measuring Development. (Yearbook for the History of Global Development 1) 200 S. 2022:2.Q. (de Gruyter, GW) <666-496>
ISBN 978-3-11-073516-1 hard ¥9,705.- (税込) EUR 51.95

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35

Erdkamp, Paul / Manning, Joseph G. / Verboven, K. (eds.), Climate Change and Ancient Societies in Europe and the Near East: Diversity in Collapse and Resilience. (Palgrave Studies in Ancient Economies) 487 pp. 2021:10 (Palgrave Macmillan, UK) <665-537>
ISBN 978-3-030-81102-0 hard ¥26,451.- (税込) EUR 139.99

Climate change over the past thousands of years is undeniable, but debate has arisen about its impact on past human societies. This book explores the link between climate and society in ancient worlds, focusing on the ancient economies of western Eurasia and northern Africa from the fourth millennium BCE up to the end of the first millennium CE. This book contributes to the multi-disciplinary debate between scholars working on climate and society from various backgrounds. The chronological boundaries of the book are set by the emergence of complex societies in the Neolithic on the one end and the rise of early-modern states in global political and economic exchange on the other. In order to stimulate comparison across the boundaries of modern periodization, this book ends with demography and climate change in early-modern and modern Italy, a society whose empirical data allows the kind of statistical analysis that is impossible for ancient societies. The book highlights the role of human agency, and the complex interactions between the natural environment and the socio-cultural, political, demographic, and economic infrastructure of any given society. It is intended for a wide audience of scholars and students in ancient economic history, specifically Rome and Late Antiquity.

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Fabre, Camille, Commerce et marchandisation du bois a Toulouse a la fin du Moyen Age. (Bibliotheque d'histoire medievale 30) 506 p. 2021:9 (Classiques Garnier, FR) <665-538>
ISBN 978-2-406-12010-0 hard ¥16,556.- (税込) EUR 87.00
ISBN 978-2-406-12009-4 paper ¥9,324.- (税込) EUR 49.00

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Kwass, Michael, The Consumer Revolution, 1650-1800. (New Approaches to European History 63) 262 pp. 2021:12 (Cambridge U. Pr., UK) <665-539>
ISBN 978-0-521-19870-7 hard ¥11,357.- (税込) GB£ 59.99
ISBN 978-0-521-13959-5 paper ¥3,657.- (税込) GB£ 19.99

The production, acquisition, and use of consumer goods defines our daily lives, and yet consumerism is seen as increasingly controversial. Movements for sustainable and ethical consumerism are gaining momentum alongside an awareness of how our choices in the marketplace can affect public issues. How did we get here? This volume advances a bold new interpretation of the 'consumer revolution' of the eighteenth century, when European elites, middling classes, and even certain labourers purchased unprecedented quantities of clothing, household goods, and colonial products. Michael Kwass adopts a global perspective that incorporates the expansion of European empires, the development of world trade, and the rise of plantation slavery in the Americas. Kwass analyses the emergence of Enlightenment material cultures, contentious philosophical debates on the morality of consumption, and new forms of consumer activism to offer a fresh interpretation of the politics of consumption in the age of abolitionism and the Atlantic Revolutions.

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38

Marsh, Patricia, The Spanish Flu in Ireland: A Socio-Economic Shock to Ireland, 1918-1919. (Palgrave Studies in Economic History) 291 pp. 2021:9 (Springer, GW) <665-541>
ISBN 978-3-030-79499-6 hard ¥20,742.- (税込) EUR 109.99

This book examines the Irish experience of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic through a detailed study of the disease in the most industrialised region of the country, the province of Ulster. By exploring the different themes of dispersion of the disease; mortality; gender; medical response and politics - and through case studies of different towns in the province of Ulster - it builds up a picture of the social, economic and political impact of influenza in Ireland. The Ulster experience of the pandemic is examined by constructing micro-histories of industrial cities and towns, along with provincial market towns and a naval port, to provide a basis for comparison of the differing approaches taken to combat the influenza outbreaks throughout Ulster. Contemporary opinion was that Ireland was considerably less affected by the war than the rest of the UK but, this book shows that the war did have a significant influence on how the influenza pandemic impacted on the Irish population from an economic, social and medical point of view. The book also explores the immediate aftermath of the pandemic and how it influenced the Irish response to the influenza scare of 1920 and the viral pandemic of Encephalitis Lethargica which was prevalent for ten years after 1918, as well as discussing what if any lessons learnt from 1918 have been applied to the present-day outbreak of Covid 19. This book will be of interest to academics in economic history, social history, Irish history and pandemic history, and those studying the effects of pandemics on the economy, health provision and pandemic preparedness.

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39

Torregrosa Hetland, Sara, The Spanish Fiscal Transition: Tax Reform and Inequality in the Late Twentieth Century. (Palgrave Studies in Economic History) 237 pp. 2021:9 (Palgrave Macmillan, UK) <665-543>
ISBN 978-3-030-79540-5 hard ¥18,839.- (税込) EUR 99.99

This book provides an analysis of the process and outcomes of the tax reform, with a focus on progressivity, redistribution, and inequality. Between 1977 and 1986, Spain underwent a comprehensive tax reform which shaped its fiscal system until today. It was made in connection with the transition to democracy and indeed was understood as a fundamental part of the political change. The book situates the reform both within Spanish history and international trends in tax systems and connects it to the expansion of the welfare state and regional decentralization in Spain. The analysis reveals that the tax system failed to attain progressivity, and significant levels of fraud had a noticeable impact on inequality. Because of this, fiscal redistribution remained limited. In the new political economy of the second globalization, late democratic and fiscal transitioners were unable to emulate the path of the welfare state forerunners.

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40

Bennett, James T., Unsustainable: The History and Politics of Green Energy. 195 pp. 2021:8 (Springer, GW) <665-411>
ISBN 978-3-030-78903-9 paper ¥5,138.- (税込) EUR 27.99

This book examines the history, politics, and economics of alternative energy. Since the energy crisis of the 1970s, governments around the world have subsidized and otherwise incentivized alternative forms of energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. This search has taken on added urgency in the twenty-first century, as the specter of climate change has engendered ambitious state-level renewable portfolio standards, enhanced federal incentives, and inspired "100% renewable" electrical generation targets in such states as Vermont and Hawaii. To save the planet from destruction, wind, solar, and other renewable energy alternatives must replace fossil fuels. But how did we get here and what is the cost? After an in-depth study of the Carter administration's synthetic fuels program, the focus shifts to the two most prominent, perhaps most promising, and certainly most promoted-and government subsidized-"green" and "renewable" energies today: wind and solar. Because wind has made the most headway and drawn the most controversy, it receives the most attention. Although the primary focus is on the American experience with renewable energy, the policies and politics of renewables in Scotland, Wales, Denmark, Spain, and other European nations are also discussed. Issues considered in the book include the nature and efficacy of renewable subsidies; the employment of federal and state tax codes to encourage renewables; the lobbies and interest groups that campaign for government support of renewables; and the fierce battles over the siting of renewable facilities. Unlike other works on this subject, the book probes in depth the nature of the opposition to wind and solar, both in the matter of siting and in their worthiness as recipients of substantial government assistance.

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41

Pokam Kamdem, Williams, L'energie au Cameroun au XXe siecle: entre la puissance publique et les entreprises, une histoire intriquee. (Histoire de l'energie / History of Energy 12) 370 p. 2021:9 (P. Lang, SZ) <665-422>
ISBN 978-2-8076-1876-3 paper ¥11,088.- (税込) SFR 63.00

Cet ouvrage decrit la constitution et l’evolution du secteur de l’energie au Cameroun. Il vise a epaissir la connaissance de ce pan de l’histoire economique et a contribuer a la recherche, dense ces dernieres decennies, sur l’histoire de l’energie et l’histoire des entreprises a travers le monde. Ce travail s’appuie sur une diversite de sources d’archives pour explorer les activites des entreprises de production et de distribution d’hydrocarbures ainsi que d’energie electrique au Cameroun. Il suit a cet effet la trame des choix ainsi que des remises en cause de politiques economiques et energetiques dans ce pays. L’approche diachronique privilegiee eclaire trois sequences de cette histoire. La premiere correspond a la periode sous administration coloniale, marquee par la formation d’une economie mixte. La deuxieme fait reference aux trois decennies qui suivent l’accession de ce pays a l’independance et qui voient s’affirmer l’etatisme. La troisieme sequence couvre les debuts de la dereglementation au cours des annees 1990. En suivant ces evolutions, l’ouvrage permet de souligner les determinants, les modalites ainsi que les effets des rapports entre la puissance publique et les entreprises privees dans un secteur de l’economie nationale decrit comme nevralgique. Il pose ainsi un jalon de l’histoire de l’energie dans ce pays d’Afrique en croisant l’histoire des entreprises, l’economie de l’energie et l’action publique.

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42

Ma, Debin / von Glahn, Richard (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of China. 2 vols. 700 pp. 2022:2 (Cambridge U. Pr., UK) <100-5806>
ISBN 978-1-107-14606-8 hard ¥38,500.- (税込) GB£ 200.00

Building on a wide array of recent scholarship, the two volumes of The Cambridge Economic History of China bring together the fruits of pioneering international studies in all dimensions of economic history, past and present. Exploring themes including political economy, agriculture, industry and trade, technology, ecological change, demography, law, urban development, standards of living, consumption, financial institutions, and national income, the two volumes together provide broad temporal coverage across all of Chinese history, including recent developments in contemporary China.

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43

Varga, Zsuzsanna, The Hungarian Agricultural Miracle? Tr. by F. T. Zsigo. (The Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series) 354 pp. 2020:11 (Lexington Books, US) <664-914>
ISBN 978-1-79363-435-1 hard ¥20,350.- (税込) US$ 125.00

This book examines Soviet agriculture in post-1945 Hungary. It demonstrates how the agrarian lobby, a development following the 1956 revolution, led to contact with the West which allowed for the creation of an effective agricultural system. The author argues that this 'Hungarian agricultural miracle,' a hybrid of American technology and Soviet structures, was fundamental to the success of Hungarian collectivization.

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44

Caruana de las Cagigas, Leonardo / Straus, Andre (eds.), Role of Reinsurance in the World: Case Studies of Eight Countries. (Palgrave Studies in Economic History) 300 pp. 2021:8 (Palgrave Macmillan, UK) <664-806>
ISBN 978-3-030-74001-6 hard ¥22,645.- (税込) EUR 119.99 *

This book is an edited collection by leading insurance historians, examining the historical role of reinsurance (the insurance of insurers) in the insurance markets of eight countries: USA, Netherlands, Sweden, France, Spain, Italy, Mexico and Japan. All the contributors are experts in their field and have widely published in insurance history, providing the reader with new insights into the insurance and economic history of these countries. In particular, this is the first book to explore the reinsurance markets in the USA, Netherlands, France, Italy and Mexico. This book will be of interest to economic and business historians, as well as insurance practitioners with an interest in the history of their industry.

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45

Pittaluga, Giovanni Battista / Seghezza, Elena, Building Trust in the International Monetary System: The Different Cases of Commodity Money and Fiat Money. (Frontiers in Economic History) 274 pp. 2021:7 (Springer, GW) <664-838>
ISBN 978-3-030-78490-4 hard ¥20,742.- (税込) EUR 109.99

This book presents the evolution of the international monetary system from the gold standard to the monetary system in force today. It adopts a political economy approach, emphasizing the economic and political conditions under which an international monetary system can come into existence and be maintained over time. This approach highlights how the gradual transition in the international context from commodity money to fiat money has been led by the need for greater elasticity of money supply and smooth adjustments. This transition, however, raises the issue of how to guarantee, over time, the value of a money devoid of intrinsic value. By presenting a historical evolution, the book explains how the existence of an international monetary system based on money without intrinsic value can only occur when a particular balance of power exists at the international level that allows for the production of trust in a fiat money. The book is a must-read for scholars, researchers, and students in the fields of economic history and international monetary economics, interested in better understanding the evolution of the international monetary system.

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46

Zeira, Joseph, The Israeli Economy: A Story of Success and Costs. (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) 408 pp. 2021:11 (Princeton U. Pr., US) <664-756>
ISBN 978-0-691-19945-0 hard ¥4,851.- (税込) US$ 35.00

An authoritative economic history of Israel from its founding to the presentIn 1922, there were ninety thousand Jews in Palestine, a small country in a poor and volatile region. Today, Israel has a population of nine million and is one of the richest countries in the world. The Israeli Economy tells the story of this remarkable transformation, shedding critical new light on Israel's rapid economic growth.Joseph Zeira takes readers from those early days to today, describing how Israel's economic development occurred amid intense fighting with the Palestinians and neighboring Arab countries. He reveals how the new state's astonishing growth continued into the early 1970s, and traces this growth to public investment in education and to large foreign transfers. Zeira analyzes the costs of the Arab-Israeli conflict, demonstrating how economic output could be vastly greater with a comprehensive peace. He discusses how Israel went through intensive neoliberal economic policies in recent decades, and shows how these policies not only failed to enhance economic performance, but led to significant social inequality.Based on more than two decades of groundbreaking research, The Israeli Economy is an in-depth survey of a modern economy that has experienced rapid growth, wars, immigration waves, and other significant shocks. It thus offers important lessons for nations around the world.

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47

Roy, Tirthankar, The Reserve Bank of India: Volume 5: 1997-2008. 750 pp. 2021:10 (Cambridge U. Pr., UK) <664-738>
ISBN 978-1-316-51132-9 hard ¥22,137.- (税込) GB£ 115.00

The fifth volume on the history of the Reserve Bank of India covers the years from 1997-98 to 2007-08. During this period, it introduced key institutional and financial market reforms in a rapidly changing economic environment and facilitated faster integration of the Indian economy. The Bank rationalised and introduced innovative instruments of monetary control; strengthened regulatory and supervisory processes for both banking and non-banking sectors; adjusted its approach to achieve and sustain financial stability; focussed on building financial market institutions and infrastructure; and spurred legal and other amendments in the larger public interest as also for achieving flexibility with stability in the economy. It also worked to improve the rural credit system, financial inclusion and customer protection. This volume is a narrative history of the Bank and also a rich resource for understanding how an emerging market central bank manages change and shapes the economy to face future challenges.

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48

Adams, R. J. C., Shadow of a Taxman: Who Funded the Irish Revolution? (Oxford Historical Monographs) 384 pp. 2022:3 (Oxford U. Pr., UK) <664-1100>
ISBN 978-0-19-284962-5 hard ¥12,512.- (税込) GB£ 65.00

Shadow of a Gunman was the first major work of fiction based on the Irish War of Independence, 1919-1921. But while the story of the gunman has been told and retold, the question of who paid for the gun has remained unanswered. The revolution, however, had to be funded. Without requisite funds, the fight could not have been won. The way in which it was funded is the focus of this study. Shadow of a Taxman investigates how the unrecognised Irish Republic's money was solicited, collected, transmitted, and safeguarded, as well as who the financial backers were and what might have influenced their decision to contribute. The Republic's quest for funds took its emissaries as far afield as New York, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, and Melbourne, as well as virtually every parish in Ireland. By selling 'war bonds' to supporters, it raised GBP370,165 from 140,000 people in Ireland and nearly $6m from 300,000 people in the United States. These bonds promised a return to subscribers when British forces had left Ireland and an independent Irish Republic was internationally recognised. Exploiting newly uncovered documents, Shadow of a Taxman reveals the identities of these subscribers. Cross-referencing with census returns, intelligence reports, memoirs, and IRA membership rolls, it provides the first demographic analysis of non-combatant supporters of Irish independence on the eve of its realisation. It also shows how access to funds shaped the course of the Irish War of Independence and, ultimately, Irish republicans' negotiating position with the British government in 1921.

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49

Brock, Aske Laursen / van Meersbergen, Guido et al. (eds.), Trading Companies and Travel Knowledge in the Early Modern World. 336 pp. 2021:10 (Routledge, UK) <664-1101>
ISBN 978-1-03-205002-7 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00 *

Trading Companies and Travel Knowledge in the Early Modern World explores the links between trade, empire, exploration, and global information trans>fer during the early modern period. By charting how the leaders, members, employees, and supporters of different trading companies gathered, pro>cessed, employed, protected, and divulged intelligence about foreign lands, peoples, and markets, this book throws new light on the internal uses of information by corporate actors and the ways they engaged with, relied on, and supplied various external publics. This ranged from using secret knowl>edge to beat competitors, to shaping debates about empire, and to forcing Europeans to reassess their understandings of specific environments due to contacts with non-European peoples. Reframing our understanding of trading companies through the lens of travel literature, this volume brings together thirteen experts in the field to facilitate a new understanding of how European corporations and empires were shaped by global webs of information exchange

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50

Edwards, Daniel, Finance and the Crusades: England, c.1213-1337. (Advances in Crusades Research) 224 pp. 2021:11 (Routledge, UK) <664-1103>
ISBN 978-0-367-70558-9 hard ¥27,192.- (税込) GB£ 120.00 *

This book investigates the financial aspects of crusading in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. Taking the kingdom of England as a case study, it explores a variety of themes, such as how much crusades cost, how they were financed, how funds were transferred to the East and how crusaders fared financially after their return. Its fundamental argument, in contrast with current historiography, is that it was the "private" fundraising of individuals - not the "public" fundraising of the Crown and the Church - that constituted the life-blood of the crusade movement in the period under consideration. Indeed, it is likely that the crusades were only able to remain central to the religious and political life of England, and indeed western Christendom, because participants, and those in their connection, continued to be willing to sacrifice their own financial wellbeing for the interests of the Holy Land.

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